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John Constable Painting Locations

John Constable was Britain's best landscape painter and was around in the late 1700's and early 1800's. His work although romanticising life at the time, shows mostly countryside images around the very early 1800's. We can therefore look any of the Photochrome series to see what Britain was like 100 years ago and the paintings of John Constable to see what it was like 200 years ago.

Many of his locations are identifiable and I have attempted to see those that are mentioned elsewhere and also to track down others. The listing John Constable Painting Locations shows the more major paintings he did and where, I have been able, the locations these were based upon. This listing links to location guides with a  more detailed description of the location, what is there today, with a current photograph to match, where I can, the original art work. Then and Now Photography  is a specific interest within photography where the pasts locations are found and photographed to see how changes has occurred. You can find other 'then and now' locations from the listing Then and Now Locations  and the other pages linked from it.



The Cornfield - John Constable 1826

Original Title -  The Drinking Boy


Quite a lot of John Constables best known works reflect locations he knew very well around his fathers mill at Flatford, in Suffolk and on the way from the mill to his home at East Bergolt and around the village, as well as along the River Stour from the mill. At least 12 major works are based on views within a couple of hundred yards of Flatford Mill, including all 4 large images on this page.

What you will discover, besides technological change, is that today items are generally better maintained, and the tree coverage today is far grater than we see in either the Photochromes and other old photographs or the work of John Constable. In these older times local or native wood was used far more, for all types of construction and many products, plus wood was used for burning in fireplaces and for cooking. Farmers and landowners at these earlier times would consider the trees and other wood produced in hedges and parkland as a part of the crop, and harvest it. Today there is considerably more tree coverage and many historic views can no longer be seen due to this forestation.

John was the son of a wealthy mill owner and was born and brought up in Suffolk, many of his paintings are based in that area, known as Dedham Vale, or often now better known as Constable Country.

He also travelled around the UK, and was friends with John Fisher, a church vicar who was, for some time, at Salisbury Cathedral.   "I should paint my own places best", he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821, "painting is but another word for feeling".

His most famous paintings include Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821. Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, he was never financially successful and did not become a member of the establishment until he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 52. He sold more paintings in France than in his native England.

John Constable - The Hay Wain 1821

Original Title -  Landscape:Noon

His life

John Constable was born in East Bergholt, a village on the River Stour in Suffolk, to Golding and Ann (Watts) Constable on 11th June 1776. His father was a wealthy corn merchant, owner of Flatford Mill in East Bergholt and later, Dedham Mill. Golding Constable, his father, also owned his own small ship, The Telegraph, which he moored at Mistley on the Stour estuary and used to transport corn to London. He was a cousin of the London Tea Merchant, Abram Newman. Although Constable was his parents' second son, his older brother was mentally handicapped and so John was expected to succeed his father in the business, and after a brief period at a boarding school in Lavenham, he was enrolled in a day school in Dedham. Constable worked in the corn business after leaving school, but his younger brother Abram eventually took over the running of the mills.

In his youth, Constable embarked on amateur sketching trips in the surrounding Suffolk countryside that was to become the subject of a large proportion of his art. These scenes, in his own words, "made me a painter, and I am grateful"; "the sound of water escaping from mill dams etc., willows, old rotten planks, slimy posts, and brickwork, I love such things."

He was introduced to George Beaumont, a collector, who showed him his prized Hagar and the Angel by Claude Lorrain, which inspired Constable. Later, while visiting relatives in Middlesex, he was introduced to the professional artist John Thomas Smith, who advised him on painting but also urged him to remain in his father's business rather than take up art professionally.

John Constable Self Portrait

In 1799, Constable persuaded his father to let him pursue art, and Golding even granted him a small allowance. Entering the Royal Academy School as a probationer, he attended life classes and anatomical dissections as well as studying and copying Old Masters. Among works that particularly inspired him during this period were paintings by Thomas Gainsborough, Claude Lorrain, Peter Paul Rubens, Annibale Carracci and Jacob van Ruisdael. He also read widely among poetry and sermons, and later proved a notably articulate artist. By 1803, he was exhibiting paintings at the Royal Academy.

In 1802 he refused the position of drawing master at Great Marlow Military College, a move which Benjamin West (then master of the RA) counselled, would mean the end of his career. In that year, Constable wrote a letter to John Dunthorne in which he spelled out his determination to become a professional landscape painter: "For the last two years I have been running after pictures, and seeking the truth at second hand. I have not endeavoured to represent nature with the same elevation of mind with which I set out, but have rather tried to make my performances look like the work of other men. There is room enough for a natural painter. The great vice of the present day is bravura, an attempt to do something beyond the truth."

His early style has many of the qualities associated with his mature work, including a freshness of light, colour and touch, and reveals the compositional influence of the Old Masters he had studied, notably of Claude Lorrain. Constable's usual subjects, scenes of ordinary daily life, were unfashionable in an age that looked for more romantic visions of wild landscapes and ruins. He did, however, make occasional trips further a field. For example, in 1803 he spent almost a month aboard the East Indiaman Ship Coutts, as it visited south east coastal ports, and in 1806 he undertook a two month tour of the Lake District. But he told his friend and biographer Charles Leslie that the solitude of the mountains oppressed his spirits, Leslie went on to write "His nature was peculiarly social and could not feel satisfied with scenery, however grand in itself, that did not abound in human associations. He required villages, churches, farmhouses and cottages."

In order to make ends meet, Constable took up portraiture, which he found dull work, though he executed many fine portraits. He also painted occasional religious pictures, but according to John Walker, "Constable's incapacity as a religious painter cannot be overstated."

Constable adopted a routine of spending the winter in London and painting at East Bergholt in the summer. And in 1811 he first visited John Fisher and his family in Salisbury in Wiltshire, a city whose cathedral and surrounding landscape were to inspire some of his greatest paintings.

From 1809 onwards, his childhood friendship with Maria Bicknell developed into a deep, mutual love. But their engagement in 1816 was opposed by Maria's grandfather, Dr Rhudde, rector of East Bergholt, who considered the Constables his social inferiors and threatened Maria with disinheritance. Maria's father, Charles Bicknell, a solicitor, was reluctant to see Maria throw away this inheritance, and Maria herself pointed out that a penniless marriage would detract from any chances John had of making a career in painting.

Golding and Ann Constable, while approving the match, held out no prospect of supporting the marriage until Constable was financially secure, but they died in quick succession, and Constable inherited a fifth share in the family business.

John and Maria's marriage in October 1816 at St Martin in the Fields (with Fisher officiating) was followed by time at Fisher's vicarage and a honeymoon tour of the south coast, where the sea at Weymouth and Brighton stimulated Constable to develop new techniques of brilliant colour and vivacious brushwork. At the same time, a greater emotional range began to register in his art.

Although he had scraped an income from painting, it was not until 1819 that Constable sold his first important canvas, The White Horse, which led to a series of "six footers", as he called his large-scale paintings.

See Larger Image

John Constable's portrait of Maria Bicknell 1816,
the same year as they were married

He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy that year, and in 1821 he showed The Hay Wain (a view from Flatford Mill) at the Academy's exhibition. Théodore Géricault saw it on a visit to London and was soon praising Constable in Paris, where a dealer, John Arrowsmith, bought four paintings, including The Hay Wain, which was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1824, winning a gold medal.

Of Constable's colour, Delacroix wrote in his journal: "What he says here about the green of his meadows can be applied to every tone". Delacroix repainted the background of his 1824 Massacre de Scio after seeing the Constables at Arrowsmith's Gallery, which he said had done him a great deal of good.

In his lifetime Constable was to sell only 20 paintings in England, but in France he sold more than 20 in just a few years. Despite this, he refused all invitations to travel internationally to promote his work, writing to Francis Darby: "I would rather be a poor man (in England) than a rich man abroad."

In 1825, perhaps due partly to the worry of his wife's ill health, the uncongeniallity of living in Brighton ("Piccadilly by the Seaside"), and the pressure of numerous outstanding commissions, he quarrelled with Arrowsmith and lost his French outlet.

The White Horse by John Constable 1819

Original Title:- A Scene on the River Stour

After the birth of her seventh child in January 1828, Maria fell ill and died of tuberculosis that November at the age of 41. Intensely saddened, Constable wrote to his brother Golding, "hourly do I feel the loss of my departed Angel, God only knows how my children will be brought up… the face of the World is totally changed to me".

Thereafter, he always dressed in black and was, according to Leslie, "a prey to melancholy and anxious thoughts". He cared for his seven children alone for the rest of his life.

Shortly before her death, Maria's father had died, leaving her £20,000. Constable speculated disastrously with this money, paying for the engraving of several mezzotints of some of his landscapes in preparation for a publication. He was hesitant and indecisive, nearly fell out with his engraver, and when the folios were published, could not interest enough subscribers. Constable collaborated closely with the talented mezzotinter David Lucas on some 40 prints after his landscapes, one of which went through 13 proof stages, corrected by Constable in pencil and paint. Constable said, "Lucas showed me to the public without my faults", but the venture was not a financial success.

He was elected to the Royal Academy in February 1829, at the age of 52, and in 1831 was appointed Visitor at the Royal Academy, where he seems to have been popular with the students.

He also began to deliver public lectures on the history of landscape painting, which were attended by distinguished audiences. In a series of such lectures at the Royal Institution, Constable proposed a threefold thesis: firstly, landscape painting is scientific as well as poetic; secondly, the imagination cannot alone produce art to bear comparison with reality; and thirdly, no great painter was ever self taught.

He also later spoke against the new Gothic Revival movement, which he considered mere "imitation".

In 1835, his last lecture to the students of the RA, in which he praised Raphael and called the R.A. the "cradle of British art", was "cheered most heartily". He died on the night of the 31st March 1837, apparently from indigestion, (probably a heart attack) and was buried with Maria in the graveyard of St John at Hampstead, Hampstead. His children John Charles Constable and Charles Golding Constable are also buried in this family tomb.

John Constable - Boat-Building near Flatford Mill 1815

His Art

Constable quietly rebelled against the artistic culture that taught artists to use their imagination to compose their pictures rather than nature itself. He told Leslie, "When I sit down to make a sketch from nature, the first thing I try to do is to forget that I have ever seen a picture".

Although Constable produced paintings throughout his life for the "finished" picture market of patrons and R.A. exhibitions, constant refreshment in the form of on-the-spot studies was essential to his working method, and he never satisfied himself with following a formula. "The world is wide", he wrote, "no two days are alike, nor even two hours; neither were there ever two leaves of a tree alike since the creation of all the world; and the genuine productions of art, like those of nature, are all distinct from each other."

Constable painted many full scale preliminary sketches of his landscapes in order to test the composition in advance of finished pictures. These large sketches, with their free and vigorous brushwork, were revolutionary at the time, and they continue to interest artists, scholars and the general public. The oil sketches of The Leaping Horse and The Hay Wain, for example, convey a vigour and expressiveness missing from Constable's finished paintings of the same subjects. Possibly more than any other aspect of Constable's work, the oil sketches reveal him in retrospect to have been an avant-garde painter, one who demonstrated that landscape painting could be taken in a totally new direction.

Constable's watercolours were also remarkably free for their time. The almost mystical Stonehenge, 1835, with its double rainbow, is often considered to be one of the greatest watercolours ever painted. When he exhibited it in 1836, Constable appended a text to the title: "The mysterious monument of Stonehenge, standing remote on a bare and boundless heath, as much unconnected with the events of past ages as it is with the uses of the present, carries you back beyond all historical records into the obscurity of a totally unknown period."

In addition to the full-scale oil sketches, Constable completed numerous observational studies of landscapes and clouds, determined to become more scientific in his recording of atmospheric conditions. The power of his physical effects was sometimes apparent even in the full-scale paintings which he exhibited in London. The Chain Pier, 1827, for example, prompted a critic to write: "the atmosphere possesses a characteristic humidity about it, that almost imparts the wish for an umbrella".

See Larger Image Stonehenge 1835

The sketches themselves were the first ever done in oils directly from the subject in the open air. To convey the effects of light and movement, Constable used broken brushstrokes, often in small touches, which he stumbled over lighter passages, creating an impression of sparkling light enveloping the entire landscape. One of the most expressionistic and powerful of all his studies is Seascape Study with Rain Cloud, painted in around 1824 at Brighton, which captures, with slashing dark brushstrokes, the immediacy of an exploding cumulus shower at sea. Constable also became interested in painting rainbow effects, for example in Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows, 1831, and in Cottage at East Bergholt, 1833.

To the sky studies he added notes, often on the back of the sketches, of the prevailing weather conditions, direction of light, and time of day, believing that the sky was "the key note, the standard of scale, and the chief organ of sentiment" in a landscape painting. In this habit he is known to have been influenced by the pioneering work of the meteorologist Luke Howard on the classification of clouds; Constable's annotations of his own copy of Researches About Atmospheric Phenomena by Thomas Forster show him to have been fully abreast of meteorological terminology. "I have done a good deal of skying", Constable wrote to Fisher on 23 October 1821; "I am determined to conquer all difficulties, and that most arduous one among the rest".

Constable once wrote in a letter to Leslie, "My limited and abstracted art is to be found under every hedge, and in every lane, and therefore nobody thinks it worth picking up". He could never have imagined how influential his honest techniques would turn out to be. Constable's art inspired not only contemporaries like Géricault and Delacroix, but the Barbizon School, and the French impressionists of the late nineteenth century.

Our view today

The art establishment today favours the sketchy, faster produced more arty works, over fine illustrations. For many artists this is a good thing, as these are both far easier to accomplish and can be done far faster. To many therefore, what John Constable produced, not as finished works, but as a stage in the process, are more highly valued.  These were John capturing the real world, that he could take back into his studio, to then use in producing quality finished work appearing more like illustrations.  Personally while I see the merit of these and his other sketches, and like to see them, it is the final quality works that I enjoy most and some of these I have had produced in his style in oil, giving me a collection of Constables that are as good as the ones hanging in galleries and museums but without the price tag and security concerns. My collection varies from small sections of some works to a couple of full size 6 footers. The ones I prefer are quarter size and are ideal for the house of today.

Having a specific interest in his works of art, over the years I have visited a number of the locations, but the photographs I have used in the accompanying 'then' and 'now' photos are from visits I have made to these sites within the last 12 months. The listing John Constables Painting Locations Then and Now   shows the more major paintings he did and, where I have been able, the locations these were based upon. This listing links to location guides with more detailed descriptions of the location and images that I captured.

The biography of John Constable is based upon Wikipedia.


By: Keith Park  Section: Photography Section Key:
Page Ref: John_Constable_locations Topic: Comparative Photography  Last Updated: 08/2010

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